Thermal Stability and Monomer Elution of Bulk Fill Composite Resins Cured from Different Irradiation Distances
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the thermal stability and monomer elution of bulk fill composite resins cured at different irradiation distances.
Materials and Methods: Forty cylindrical-shaped (3×4mm) specimens were fabricated from two composite resins (X-tra fil, X-tra base) and cured from 0 and 7mm distances. In 9 specimens, the degree of conversion was determined by the release of monomers. For this purpose, after curing of composites, they were immersed in 5 mL of 99.9% methanol and stored at 37°C for 24h. The eluted monomer was then analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Also, thermal stability of one sample from each group was assessed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at a rate of 10°C/min. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test (P<0.05).
Results: X-tra fil had significantly higher degree of conversion than X-tra base (P=0.001). Specimens cured at 7mm distance had significantly lower degree of conversion compared with those cured at 0 mm distance (P=0.001). The interaction effect of composite type and distance of light curing unit from the surface of samples was statistically significant (P=0.001). Regarding the TGA results, the lowest and the highest percentages of weight loss were detected in X-tra fil cured at 0 mm distance and X-tra base cured at 7mm distance, respectively.
Conclusion: X-tra fil composite cured at 0mm distance had the highest degree of conversion and thermal stability, and X-tra base composite cured at 7mm distance had the lowest values.
2. Alshali RZ, Salim NA, Satterthwaite JD, Silikas N. Post-irradiation hardness development, chemical softening and thermal stability of bulk-fill and conventional resin-composites. J Dent. 2015 Feb;43(2):209-18.
3. Alrahlah A, Silikas N, Watts DC. Hygroscopic expansion kinetics of dental resin-composites. Dent Mater. 2014 Feb;30(2):143-8.
4. Aguiar FH, Andrade KR, Leite Lima DA, Ambrosano GM, Lovadino JR. Influence of light curing and sample thickness on microhardness of a composite resin. Clin Cosmet Investig Dent. 2009 May;6(1):21-5.
5. Li X, Pongprueksa P, Van Meerbeek B, De Munck J. Curing profile of bulk-fill resin-based composites. J Dent. 2015 Jun;43(6):664-72.
6. Pongprueksa P, De Munck J, Duca RC, Poels K, Covaci A, Hoet P, et al. Monomer elution in relation to degree of conversion for different types of composite. J Dent. 2015 Dec;43(12):1448-55.
7. Van Ende A, De Munck J, Lise DP, Van Meerbeek B. Bulk-Fill composites: A review of the current literature. J Adhes Dent. 2017;19(2):95-109.
8. Sousa-Lima RX, Silva L, Chaves L, Geraldeli S, Alonso R, Borges B. Extensive assessment of the physical, mechanical and adhesion behavior of a low-viscosity bulk fill composite and a traditional resin composite in tooth cavities. Oper Dent. 2017 Sep/Oct;42(5):e159-66.
9. Tuna EB, Aktoren O, Oshida Y, Gencay K. Elution of residual monomers from dental composite materials. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2010 Sep;11(3):110-4.
10. Thomé T, Steagall W Jr, Tachibana A, Braga SR, Turbino ML. Influence of the distance of the curing light source and composite shade on hardness of two composites. Appl Oral Sci. 2007 Dec;15(6):486-91.
11. Ferracane JL. Hygroscopic and hydrolytic effects in dental polymer networks. Dent Mater. 2006 Mar;22(3):211-22.
12. Price DM, Hourston DJ, Dumont F. Thermogravimetry of Polymers, in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, 2000: 8094-105.
13. Moldovan M, Balazsi R, Soanca A, Roman A, Sarosi C, Prodan D, et al. Evaluation of the degree of conversion, residual monomers and mechanical properties of some light-cured dental resin composites. Materials (Basel). 2019 Jun;12(13):2109.
14. Cebe MA, Cebe F, Cengiz MF, Cetin AR, Arpag OF, Ozturk B. Elution of monomer from different bulk fill dental composite resins. Dent Mater. 2015 Jul;31(7):e141-9.
15. Durner J, Schrickel K, Watts DC, Ilie N. Determination of Homologous Distributions of bisEMA Dimethacrylates in Bulk-Fill Resin-Composites by GC-MS. Dent Mater. 2015 Apr;31(4):473-80.
16. Rothmund L, Reichla FX, Hickela R, Stylloua P, Styllou M, Kehe K, et al. Effect of layer thickness on the elution of bulk-fill composite components. Dent Mater. 2017 Jan;33(1):54-62.
17. Ilie N, Stark K. Effect of different curing protocols on the mechanical properties of low-viscosity bulk-fill composites. Clin Oral Investig. 2015 Mar;19(2):271-9.
18. Shortall A, El-Mahy W, Stewardson D, Addison O, Palin W. Initial fracture resistance and curing temperature rise of ten contemporary resin-based composites with increasing radiant exposure. J Dent. 2013 May;41(5):455-63.
19. Karabela MM, Sideridou ID. Synthesis and study of physical properties of dental light-cured nanocomposites using different amounts of a urethane dimethacrylate trialkoxysilane coupling agent. Dent Mater. 2011 Nov;27(11):1144-52.
20. Garoushi S, Vallittu PK, Lassila LV. Depth of cure and surface microhardness of experimental short fiber-reinforced composite. Acta Odontol Scand. 2008 Feb;66(1):38-42.
21. Abed YA, Sabry HA, Alrobeigy NA. Degree of conversion and surface hardness of bulk-fill composite versus incremental-fill composite. Tanta Dent J. 2015 Jan;12(2):71-80.
22. Stanislawski L, Lefeuvre M, Bourd K, Soheili-Majd E, Goldberg M, Périanin A. TEGDMA-induced toxicity in human fibroblasts is associated with early and drastic glutathione depletion with subsequent production of oxygen reactive species. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2003 Sep;66(3): 476-82.
23. Aromaa MK, Lassila LVJ, Vallittu PK. Effect of distance on light transmission through polymerized resin composite. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent. 2017 Sep;25(3):131-5.
24. Ilie N, Keßler A, Durner J. Influence of various irradiation processes on the mechanical properties and polymerisation kinetics of bulk-fill resin based composites. J Dent. 2013 Aug;41(8):695-702.
25. x-tra fill: Instructions for use. Available at: https://www.voco.dental/en/portaldata/1/resources/products/instructions-for-use/e1/x-tra-fil_ifu_e1.pdf
26. x-tra base: Instructions for use. Available at: https://www.voco.dental/en/portaldata/1/resources/products/instructions-for-use/e1/x-tra-base_ifu_e1.pdf
27. Alshali RZ, Silikas N, Satterthwaite JD. Degree of conversion of bulk-fill compared to conventional resin-composites at two time intervals. Dent Mater. 2013 Sep;29(9):e213-7.
28. Papadogiannis D, Tolidis K, Gerasimou P, Lakes R, Papadogiannis Y. Viscoelastic properties, creep behavior and degree of conversion of bulk fill composite resins. Dent Mater. 2015 Dec;31(12):1533-41.
29. Abo El Naga A, Fayez Bahgat S, Basheer RR, Yousef MK, Alshawwa LA. Effect of different light-curing units and modes on the degree of conversion of different resin composites. Egypt Dent J. 2015 Apr; 61(2):1695-706.
30. Cornelio RB, Wikant A, Mjøsund H, Kopperud HM, Haasum J, Gedde UW, et al. The Influence of bis-EMA vs Bis GMA on the Degree of Conversion and Water Susceptibility of Experimental Composite Materials. Acta Odontol Scand. 2014 Aug;72(6):440-7.
31. Leprince JG, Palin WM, Vanacker J, Sabbagh J, Devaux J, Leloup G. Physico-mechanical characteristics of commercially available bulk-fill composites. J Dent. 2014 Aug;42(8):993-1000.
32. Ilie N, Bucuta S, Draenert M. Bulk-fill resin-based composites: An in vitro assessment of their mechanical performance. Oper Dent. 2013 Nov-Dec;38(6):618-25.
33. Liu Q, Ding J, Chambers DE, Debnath S, Wunder SL, Baran GR. Filler-coupling agent-matrix interactions in silica/polymethyl methacrylate composites. J Biomed Mater Res. 2001 Dec;57(3):384–93.
|Issue||Volume 18 (IN PROGRESS)|
|Composite Resins Triethylene Glycol Triethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|