Cytotoxicity and Antibacterial Activity of Toothpastes and Mouthwashes Available in the Iranian Market
Objectives: Toothpastes and mouthwashes contain chemicals that may be harmful to oral tissues. This study assessed the cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of toothpastes and compare the Iranian and foreign toothpastes and mouthwashes available in the Iranian market in this respect.
Materials and Methods: Twenty samples (13 toothpastes and 4 mouthwashes) were selected. The cytotoxicity of 1, 10, and 50 mg/mL of toothpastes and 0.05, 2 and 10 µL of mouthwashes was measured after 1, 15 and 30 min of exposure to human gingival fibroblasts, each in triplicate. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used for cytotoxicity testing. The serial dilution method was utilized to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each sample against Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used for data analysis.
Results: A significant difference in cytotoxicity was noted among different products (P=0.00). The difference in cytotoxicity of each sample was not significant at 1, 15 and 30 min (P=0.08). The obtained MIC for all toothpastes and mouthwashes was between 0.0039 mg/mL and 0.0156 mg/mL, except for Sensodyne toothpaste and Oral B mouthwash.
Conclusion: Some brands of toothpastes have higher cytotoxicity due to their composition, and their cytotoxicity should not be overlooked. The antibacterial activity of the samples was almost equal when they were in contact with L. acidophilus and S. mutans except for the Irsha mouthwash, Sehat, Darugar and Bath toothpastes. The antibacterial effect of toothpastes and mouthwashes increased with an increase in exposure time.
2. Ghapanchi J, Kamali F, Moattari A, Poorshahidi S, Shahin E, Rezazadeh F, et al. In vitro comparison of cytotoxic and antibacterial effects of 16 commercial toothpastes. J Int Oral Heal 2015 Mar;7(3):39.
3. Melinda M. Experiences with amine fluoride containing products in the management of dental hard tissue lesions focusing on Hungarian studies: A review. Acta Med Acad 2013;42:189-97.
4. Barbier O, Arreola-Mendoza L, Del Razo LM. Molecular mechanisms of fluoride toxicity. Chem Biol Interact 2010 Nov;188(2):319-33.
5. Tadin A, Gavic L, Govic T, Galic N, Zorica Vladislavic N, Zeljezic D. In vivo evaluation of fluoride and sodium lauryl sulphate in toothpaste on buccal epithelial cells toxicity. Acta Odontol Scand 2019 Jul;77(5):386-93.
6. Li P, Xue Y, Zhang W, Teng F, Sun Y, Qu T, et al. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in odontoblasts via a JNK-dependent mechanism. Toxicology 2013 Jun;308:138-45.
7. Mukhopadhyay D, Chattopadhyay A. Induction of oxidative stress and related transcriptional effects of sodium fluoride in female zebrafish liver. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2014 Jul;93(1):64-70.
8. Agalakova NI, Gusev GP. Transient activation of protein kinase C contributes to fluoride-induced apoptosis of rat erythrocytes. Toxicol Vitr 2013 Dec;27(8):2335-41.
9. Healy CM, Cruchley AT, Thornhill MH, Williams DM. The effect of sodium lauryl sulphate, triclosan and zinc on the permeability of normal oral mucosa. Oral Dis 2000 Mar;6(2):118-23.
10. Herlofson BB, Brodin P, Aars H. Increased human gingival blood flow induced by sodium lauryl sulfate. J Clin Periodontol 1996 Nov;23(11):1004-7.
11. Cvikl B, Lussi A, Gruber R. The in vitro impact of toothpaste extracts on cell viability. Eur J Oral Sci 2015 Jun;123(3):179-85.
12. Nowak K, Ratajczak--Wrona W, Górska M, Jabłońska E. Parabens and their effects on the endocrine system. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2018 Oct;474:238-51.
13. Rugg-Gunn A, Jolán B. Fluoride toothpastes and fluoride mouthrinses for home use. Acta Med Acad 2013;42:168-78.
14. Jabarifar SE, Tabibian SA, Poursina F. Effect of fluoride mouthrinse and toothpaste on number of streptococcal colony forming units of dental plaque. J Res Med Sci 2005;10:363-7.
15. Otten MPT, Busscher HJ, Abbas F, van der Mei HC, van Hoogmoed CG. Plaque-left-behind after brushing: intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients. Clin Oral Investig 2012 Oct;16(5):1435-42.
16. Vitt A, Sofrata A, Slizen V, Sugars RV, Gustafsson A, Gudkova EI, et al. Antimicrobial activity of polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate in comparison to chlorhexidine using the quantitative suspension method. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2015 Dec;14:36.
17. Camargo SE, Joias RP, Santana-Melo GF, Ferreira LT, El Achkar VN, Rode S de M. Conventional and whitening toothpastes: cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and effect on the enamel surface. Am J Dent 2014 Dec;27(6):307-11.
18. Stringaro A, Colone M, Angiolella L. Antioxidant, antifungal, antibiofilm, and cytotoxic activities of Mentha spp. essential oils. Medicines 2018 Dec;5(4):112.
19. Nair B. Final report on the safety assessment of Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, and Sodium Benzoate. Int J Toxicol 2001;20:23-50.
20. Torrado A, Valiente M, Zhang W, Li Y, Muñoz CA. Cytotoxicity of a new toothpaste based on an ion exchange resin mixture. Am J Dent 2005 Aug;18(4):267-9.
21. Jeng JH, Hsieh CC, Lan WH, Chang MC, Lin SK, Hahn LJ, et al. Cytotoxicity of sodium fluoride on human oral mucosal fibroblasts and its mechanisms. Cell Biol Toxicol 1998 Dec;14(6):383-9.
22. Shourie KL, Hein JW, Carpenter Hodge H. Preliminary studies of the caries inhibiting potential and acute toxicity of sodium monoflltorophosphate. J Dent Res 1950 Aug;29(4):529-33.
23. Song DX, Zheng LW, Shen SM, Chen XM. Cytotoxicity of ammonium hexafluorosilicate on human gingival fibroblasts. Toxicol Vitr 2013 Dec;27(8):2149-55.
24. Davies RM, Ellwood RP, Davies GM. The effectiveness of a toothpaste containing triclosan and polyvinyl-methyl ether maleic acid copolymer in improving plaque control and gingival health: a systematic review. J Clin Periodontol 2004 Dec;31(12):1029-33.
25. Gunsolley JC. A meta-analysis of six-month studies of antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. J Am Dent Assoc 2006 Dec;137(12):1649-57.
|Mouthwashes Toothpastes Cytotoxicity Tests Immunologic Streptococcus mutans Lactobacillus acidophilus|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|