Original Article

The Effect of Different Soft Drinks on the Force Degradation of Conventional and Memory Orthodontic Elastic Chains: An In-Vitro Study


Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess how different soft drinks affect the deterioration of conventional and memory orthodontic elastomeric chains.

Materials and Methods: We used 500 five-loop segments of elastomeric chains, which were divided into two equal groups of conventional and memory chains. The samples were kept in artificial saliva during the study period. Each group was further divided into 5 subgroups consisting of artificial saliva (controls), Coca-Cola®, non-alcoholic beer (ISTAK®), and carbonated and non-carbonated yoghurt-based drinks (Alis®). Treatment with the soft drinks consisted of immersion in the test liquids twice a day for 3 minutes each time. Force measurements were taken on days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Data were analyzed using One- and three-way ANOVA tests, and independent t-test, with a significance level of 5%.

Results: The mean initial force for the conventional and memory elastomeric chains was 3.34±0.112N and 2.49±0.209N, respectively. Conventional chains showed significantly greater degradation than memory chains (P<0.01). Soft drinks had a significant impact on force degradation for both types of chains at all time points (P<0.01). Coca-Cola® had the highest level of force degradation, while non-carbonated yoghurt-based drinks had the lowest (P<0.01).

Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that orthodontic patients choose non-carbonated yoghurt-based drinks during their treatment. Memory elastomeric chains may be more suitable for patients who consume large amounts of carbonated soft drinks, due to their lower amount of force degradation compared to conventional chains.

1. Kumar K, Shetty S, Krithika MJ, Cyriac B. Effect of commonly used beverage, soft drink, and mouthwash on force delivered by elastomeric chain: a comparative in vitro study. J Int Oral Health. 2014 Jun;6(3):7-10. Epub 2014 Jun 26.
2. Larrabee TM, Liu SS, Torres-Gorena A, Soto-Rojas A, Eckert GJ, Stewart KT. The effects of varying alcohol concentrations commonly found in mouth rinses on the force decay of elastomeric chain. Angle Orthod. 2012 Sep;82(5):894-9.
3. Halimi A, Benyahia H, Doukkali A, Azeroual MF, Zaoui F. A systematic review of force decay in orthodontic elastomeric power chains. Int Orthod. 2012 Sep;10(3):223-40. English, French.
4. Eliades T, Eliades G, Silikas N, Watts DC. In vitro degradation of polyurethane orthodontic elastomeric modules. J Oral Rehabil. 2005 Jan;32(1):72-7.
5. Ferriter JP, Meyers CE Jr, Lorton L. The effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the force-degradation rate of orthodontic polyurethane chain elastics. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1990 Nov;98(5):404-10.
6. Lu TC, Wang WN, Tarng TH, Chen JW. Force decay of elastomeric chain--a serial study. Part II. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1993 Oct;104(4):373-7.
7. Ren Y, Maltha JC, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM. Optimum force magnitude for orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic literature review. Angle Orthod. 2003 Feb;73(1):86-92
8. Oshagh M, Khajeh F, Heidari S, Torkan S, Fattahi HR. The effect of different environmental factors on force degradation of three common systems of orthodontic space closure. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2015 Jan-Feb;12(1):50-6.
9. Mirhashemi A, Saffarshahroudi A, Sodagar A, Atai M. Force-degradation pattern of six different orthodontic elastomeric chains. J Dent (Tehran). 2012 Fall;9(4):204-15. Epub 2012 Dec 31.
10. Baratieri C, Mattos CT, Alves M Jr, Lau TC, Nojima LI, de Souza MM, et al. In situ evaluation of orthodontic elastomeric chains. Braz Dent J. 2012;23(4):394-8.
11. Teixeira L, Pereira Bdo R, Bortoly TG, Brancher JA, Tanaka OM, Guariza-Filho O. The environmental influence of Light Coke, phosphoric acid, and citric acid on elastomeric chains. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2008 Nov 1;9(7):17-24.
12. Masoud AI, Tsay TP, BeGole E, Bedran-Russo AK. Force decay evaluation of thermoplastic and thermoset elastomeric chains: A mechanical design comparison. Angle Orthod. 2014 Nov;84(6):1026-33.
13. Balhoff DA, Shuldberg M, Hagan JL, Ballard RW, Armbruster PC. Force decay of elastomeric chains - a mechanical design and product comparison study. J Orthod. 2011 Mar;38(1):40-7.
14. Masoud AI, Tsay TP, BeGole E, Bedran-Russo AK. Force decay evaluation of thermoplastic and thermoset elastomeric chains: A mechanical design comparison. Angle Orthod. 2014 Nov;84(6):1026-33.
15. Omidkhoda M, Rashed R, Khodarahmi N. Evaluation of the effects of three different mouthwashes on the force decay of orthodontic chains. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2015 Jul-Aug;12(4):348-52.
16. Al-Kassar SS. The force degradation of elastic chain in different environments and for different intervals (an in vitro study). Al-Rafidain Dent. J. 2011 Jun 1;11(2):231-7.
17. Ramazanzadeh BA, Jahanbin A, Hasanzadeh N, Eslami N. Effect of sodium fluoride mouth rinse on elastic properties of elastomeric chains. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2009 Winter;34(2):189-92.
18. Van Eygen I, Vannet BV, Wehrbein H. Influence of a soft drink with low pH on enamel surfaces: an in vitro study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2005 Sep;128(3):372-7.
19. Nattrass C, Ireland AJ, Sherriff M. The effect of environmental factors on elastomeric chain and nickel titanium coil springs. Eur J Orthod. 1998 Apr;20(2):169-76.
20. Kardach H, Biedziak B, Olszewska A, Golusińska-Kardach E, Sokalski J. The mechanical strength of orthodontic elastomeric memory chains and plastic chains: An in vitro study. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2017 May-Jun;26(3):373-378.
21. Sajadi SS, Eslami Amirabadi G, Sajadi S. Effects of two soft drinks on shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index of orthodontic metal brackets. J Dent (Tehran). 2014 Jul;11(4):389-97. Epub 2014 Jul 31.
22. Pithon MM, Lacerda-Santos R, Santana LR, Rocha M, Leal RO, Santos MM. Does acidic drinks vs.controls differents interfere with the force of orthodontic chain elastics? Biosci J. 2014;30:1952–8..
23. Sarkar SR, Tan KF. Changes in the force degradation of orthodontic elastomeric chains when subjected to different formulations of chlorhexidine mouthrinse-an in vitro study. Contemp Res J Multidisciplinary Sci. 2017 Dec 3;1(1):29-44.
24. Rafeeq RA, Al-Mashhadany SM, Hussien HM, Al-Groosh DH, Effect of Three Types of Mouth Washes on the Force Decay of Elastomeric Chains: An in Vitro Study. IJSR 2017;6(6):1561-65
25. Kanuru RK, Azaneen M, Narayana V, Kolasani B, Indukuri RR, Babu PF. Comparison of canine retraction by in vivo method using four brands of elastomeric power chain. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2014 Nov;4(Suppl 1):S32-7.
26. Yuwana CP, Christnawati C, Farmasyanti C. The Effect of Immersion Time in Three Kinds of Carbonated Beverages on Orthodontic Elastic Latex’s Tensile Strength (In Vitro). UIP Health Med. 2017 Jan 3;1:63-7.
27. Crawford NL, McCarthy C, Murphy TC, Benson PE. Physical properties of conventional and Super Slick elastomeric ligatures after intraoral use. Angle Orthod. 2010 Jan;80(1):175-81.
28. Bousquet JA Jr, Tuesta O, Flores-Mir C. In vivo comparison of force decay between injection molded and die-cut stamped elastomers. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006 Mar;129(3):384-9.
29. Fernandes DJ, Fernandes GM, Artese F, Elias CN, Mendes AM. Force extension relaxation of medium force orthodontic latex elastics. Angle Orthod. 2011 Sep;81(5):812-9.
30. Aldrees AM, Al-Foraidi SA, Murayshed MS, Almoammar KA. Color stability and force decay of clear orthodontic elastomeric chains: An in vitro study. Int Orthod. 2015 Sep;13(3):287-301. English, French.
31. Singh V, Pokharel P, Pariekh K, Roy D, Singla A, Biswas K. Elastics in orthodontics: A review. Health Renaiss. 1970;0:49–56.
32. Renick MR, Brantley WA, Beck FM, Vig KW, Webb CS. Studies of orthodontic elastomeric modules. Part 1: glass transition temperatures for representative pigmented products in the as-received condition and after orthodontic use. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2004 Sep;126(3):337-43.
33. Braga E, Souza G, Barretto P, Ferraz C, Pithon M. Experimental evaluation of strength degradation of orthodontic chain elastics immersed in hot beverages. J Indian Orthod Soc. 2019;53:244–8.
34. Suprayugo M, Eriwati YK, Santosa A. Effect of pH of soft drinks on force decay in orthodontic power chains. J Physics. 2018;1073:62016.
35. Khaleghi A, Ahmadvand A, Sadeghian S. Effect of citric acid on force decay of orthodontic elastomeric chains. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2021 May 24;18:31.
36. OmidKhoda M, Heravi F, Shafaee H, Mollahassani H. The effect of different soft drinks on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. J Dent (Tehran). 2012 Spring;9(2):145-9. Epub 2012 Jun 30.
37 Hobson RS, McCabe JF, Hogg SD. The effect of food simulants on enamel-composite bond strength. J Orthod. 2000 Mar;27(1):55-9.
IssueVol 20 (Continuously Published Article-Based) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/fid.v20i29.13347
Orthodontic Appliances Elasticity Materials Testing Carbonated Beverages

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Dehghani M, Alavian N, Noori N, Omidkhoda M. The Effect of Different Soft Drinks on the Force Degradation of Conventional and Memory Orthodontic Elastic Chains: An In-Vitro Study. Front Dent. 2023;20.