Evaluation of the Shear Bond Strength and Adhesive Remnant Index in Debonding of Stainless Steel Brackets Assisted with Nd:YAG Laser Irradiation
Objectives: The purpose was to compare shear bond strength (SBS), pulp temperature, and adhesive remnant index (ARI) in debonding of stainless steel brackets from enamel surface using neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser versus the conventional debonding method.
Materials and Methods: Forty-eight extracted premolars were bonded to stainless steel brackets. The samples were divided into three experimental groups and one control group. In the first three groups, Nd:YAG laser was used for debonding with the power of 1, 1.5, and 2 W, respectively, for 10 seconds. The SBS and ARI of the samples were assessed. Pulp temperature was recorded before and after irradiation. Two samples from each group were used for determining enamel morphology after debonding using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Results: The mean SBS in the groups was 33.05, 28.69, 24.37, and 31.53 MPa, respectively, with no statistically significant differences (P=0.205). Significant differences in post-irradiation temperature were noted among the lased groups (P=0.000). Debonding mainly occurred at the adhesive-enamel interface in the 1-W laser and control groups and at the bracket-adhesive interface in the 1.5-W and 2-W laser groups. Enamel structure was amorphous and irregular following laser irradiation.
Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, the use of Nd:YAG laser could not significantly affect the SBS. Therefore, this laser would not be suitable for debonding of metal brackets. The use of a 2-W laser could significantly raise the pulpal temperature. Nd:YAG laser renders a more heterogeneous enamel morphology compared to conventional debonding methods.
Hashim NT, Gasmalla BG, Sabahelkheir AH, Awooda AM. Effect of the clinical application of the diode laser (810 nm) in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity. BMC Res Notes. 2014 Jan 13; 7:31.
Maenosono RM, Bim Junior O, Duarte MA, Palma-Dibb RG, Wang L, Ishikiriama SK. Diode laser irradiation increases microtensile bond strength of dentin. Braz Oral Res. 2015; 29:1-5.
Van Waveren Hogervorst WL, Feilzer AJ, Prahl-Andersen B. The air-abrasion technique versus the conventional acid-etching technique: A quantification of surface enamel loss and a comparison of shear bond strength. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2000 Jan; 117(1):20-6.
Van Meerbeek B, De Munck J, Yoshida Y, Inoue S, Vargas M, Vijay P, et al. Buonocore memorial lecture. Adhesion to enamel and dentin: current status and future challenges. Oper Dent. 2003 May-Jun; 28(3):215-35.
Marimoto AK, Cunha LA, Yui KC, Huhtala MF, Barcellos DC, Prakki A, et al. Influence of Nd:YAG laser on the bond strength of self-etching and conventional adhesive systems to dental hard tissues. Oper Dent. 2013 Jul-Aug; 38(4):447-55.
Hayakawa K. Nd:YAG laser for debonding ceramic orthodontic brackets. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2005 Nov; 128(5):638-47.
Swartz ML. Ceramic brackets. J Clin Orthod. 1988 Feb; 22(2):82-8.
Bishara SE, Forrseca JM, Fehr DE, Boyer DB. Debonding forces applied to ceramic brackets simulating clinical conditions. Angle Orthod. 1994; 64(4):277-82.
Bishara SE, Fehr DE, Jakobsen JR. A comparative study of the debonding strengths of different ceramic brackets, enamel conditioners, and adhesives. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1993 Aug; 104(2):170-9.
Jou GL, Leung RL, White SN, Zernik JH. Bonding ceramic brackets with light-cured glass ionomer cements. J Clin Orthod. 1995 Mar; 29(3):184-7.
Krejci I, Simunovic K, Lutz F. [Substance ablation with a superpulsed CO2 laser]. [Article in German]. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed. 1992; 102(6):693-9.
Iijima M, Yasuda Y, Muguruma T, Mizoguchi I. Effects of CO2 laser debonding of a ceramic bracket on the mechanical properties of enamel. Angle Orthod. 2010 Nov; 80(6):1029-35.
Tehranchi A, Fekrazad R, Zafar M, Eslami B, Kalhori KA, Gutknecht N. Evaluation of the effects of CO2 laser on debonding of orthodontics porcelain brackets vs. the conventional method. Lasers Med Sci. 2011 Sep; 26(5):563-7.
Tocchio RM, Williams PT, Mayer FJ, Standing KG. Laser debonding of ceramic orthodontic brackets. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1993 Feb; 103(2):155-62.
Ahrari F, Heravi F, Fekrazad R, Farzanegan F, Nakhaei S. Does ultra-pulse CO(2) laser reduce the risk of enamel damage during debonding of ceramic brackets? Lasers Med Sci. 2012 May; 27(3):567-74.
Nalbantgil D, Tozlu M, Oztoprak MO. Pulpal Thermal Changes following Er-YAG Laser Debonding of Ceramic Brackets. Sci World J. 2014; 2014:912429.
Ahmad Akhoundi MS, Etemadi A, Nasiri M, Soltanmohamadi Borujeni E. Comparison of enamel morphologic characteristics after conditioning with various combinations of acid etchant and Er:YAG laser in bonding and rebonding procedures: a SEM analysis. J Dent (Tehran). 2017 May; 14(3):144-152.
Sawan MN, Hussain N, Alkurdi MM. Etching of enamel by laser energy for direct bonding of orthodontic appliance and evaluation of shear bond strength. Energy Procedia. 2015 Aug; 74: 1452-58.
Keller U, Hibst R. Experimental studies of the application of the Er:YAG laser on dental hard substances: II. Light microscopic and SEM investigations. Lasers Surg Med. 1989; 9(4):345-51.
Feldon PJ, Murray PE, Burch JG, Meister M, Freedman MA. Diode laser debonding of ceramic brackets. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010 Oct; 138(4):458-62.
Oztoprak MO, Nalbantgil D, Erdem AS, Tozlu M, Arun T. Debonding of ceramic brackets by a new scanning laser method. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010 Aug; 138(2):195-200.
Verdonschot EH, Bronkhorst EM, Wenzel A. Approximal caries diagnosis using fiber-optic transillumination: a mathematical adjustment to improve validity. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1991 Dec; 19(6):329-32.
Dostalova T, Jelinkova H, Remes M, Šulc J, Němec M. The Use of the Er:YAG Laser for Bracket Debonding and Its Effect on Enamel Damage. Photomed Laser Surg. 2016 Sep; 34(9):394-9.
Zulkifli N, Suhaimi FM, Razab AAM, Jaafar MS, Mokhtar N. The Use of Nd:YAG Laser for Ablation of Dental Material. 5th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Technology. 2015;81(8):40-7.
Ghazanfari R, Nokhbatolfoghahaei H, Alikhasi M. Laser-aided ceramic bracket debonding: a comprehensive review. J Lasers Med Sci. 2016 Winter; 7(1):2-11.
Saito A, Namura Y, Isokawa K, Shimizu N. CO2 laser debonding of a ceramic bracket bonded with orthodontic adhesive containing thermal expansion microcapsules. Lasers Med Sci. 2015 Feb; 30(2):869-74.
Lai RF, Wang HY, Chen T, Liu XN. [Pulsed Nd:YAG laser-aided debonding for removing the metal brackets]. [Article in Chinese]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010 Jul; 45(7):407-10.
Oliver RG. Bond strength of orthodontic attachments to enamel from unerupted and erupted young permanent teeth. Eur J Orthod. 1986 May; 8(2):123-6.
Zach L, Cohen G. Pulp response to externally applied heat. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1965 Apr; 19:515-30.
Yassaei S, Soleimanian A, Nik ZE. Effects of Diode Laser Debonding of Ceramic Brackets on Enamel Surface and Pulpal Temperature. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2015 Apr 1; 16(4):270-4.
Macri RT, de Lima FA, Bachmann L, Galo R, Romano FL, Borsatto MC, et al. CO2 laser as auxiliary in the debonding of ceramic brackets. Lasers Med Sci. 2015 Sep; 30(7):1835-41.
Anand P, Anand PB, Prabhakar R, Rajvikram N, Rajakumar P, Atali VR, et al. Immediate and delayed effects of diode laser on debonding of ceramic brackets: an in vitro study. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2016 Apr 1; 17(4):275-81.
Yilanci H, Yildirim ZB, Ramoglu SI. Intrapulpal Temperature Increase During Er:YAG Laser-Aided Debonding of Ceramic Brackets. Photomed Laser Surg. 2017 Apr; 35(4):217-222.
Mundethu AR, Gutknecht N, Franzen R. Rapid debonding of polycrystalline ceramic orthodontic brackets with an Er:YAG laser: an in vitro study. Lasers Med Sci. 2014 Sep; 29(5):1551-6.
Majori M, Manzon L, Pane S, Bedini R. Effects of Nd:YAG laser on dental enamel. J Appl Biomater Biomech. 2005 May-Aug; 3(2):128-33.
|Issue||Vol 16, No 1 (2019)|
|Nd:YAG Laser Dental Debonding Orthodontic Brackets|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|