Original Article

Designing a tool to assess professionalism among dental students in clinical departments of dental school and its psychometric analysis


Objectives: Professionalism is essential to a strong trusted patient-doctor relationship, which is believed, could lead to more patient compliance and treatment outcomes. The purpose of our study was the development and psychometric analysis of an assessment tool for the professional behavior of dental students.

Materials and Methods: The study was done in the School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. After providing a pool of various criteria to assess professionalism, an expert panel prepared the primary version of the tool. The tool was set in a questionnaire frame to explore the significance level and evaluation feasibility of each criterion. The questionnaire was completed by tutors of the “Medical Ethics” course (N=6). After necessary revisions, in order to evaluate face and content validity, the checklist was given to eight experienced dental educators to determine the relevance, clarity and simplicity of the questions. At the second stage, the final checklist with 37 items was given to dental educators to evaluate twenty students. To assess the reliability of this checklist, at least two professors evaluated each student and the weighted-  was calculated. Minor revisions were done according to feedbacks.

Results: According to the obtained data, the total validity of the tool (S-CVI) was 100%. In all items, except just for one item, the weighted-  was greater than or equal to 0.5, showing sufficient reliability of these items.

Conclusion: The designed tool to evaluate the professionalism among dental students in different clinical departments seems to be both valid and reliable.

1. Masella RS. Renewing professionalism in dental education: overcoming the market environment. J Dent Educ. 2007 Feb;71(2):205-16.
2. ABIM Foundation; ACP-ASIM Foundation; European Federation of Internal Medicine. Medical professionalism in the new millennium: a physician charter. Ann Intern Med. 2002 Feb 5;136(3):243-6.
3. Bagheri A, Farzaneh E, Hedayatipour M. A Study of Frequency and Reasons of Patients Complaints against Dental Practitioners in Ardebil during 2001-2011. Iran J Forensic Med. 2015 Jan 10;20(4):179-86.
4. Li H, Ding N, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Wen D. Assessing medical professionalism: A systematic review of instruments and their measurement properties. PLoS One. 2017 May 12;12(5):e0177321.
5. Jönsson A, Wretlind K, Gassner Kanters L. Assessment of professionalism within dental education a review of studies. [Diussertation]. Odontology. Academia regia odontologica. Malmö University. August, 2012. Available at: https://mau.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1479671/FULLTEXT01.pdf, Last accessed in November 2021.
6. Parker M, Luke H, Zhang J, Wilkinson D, Peterson R, Ozolins I. The "pyramid of professionalism": seven years of experience with an integrated program of teaching, developing, and assessing professionalism among medical students. Acad Med. 2008 Aug;83(8):733-41.
7. Field J, Ellis J, Abbas C, Germain P. Teaching and assessment of professional attitudes in UK dental schools - commentary. Eur J Dent Educ. 2010 Aug;14(3):133-5.
8. Mazor KM, Zanetti ML, Alper EJ, Hatem D, Barrett SV, Meterko V, et al. Assessing professionalism in the context of an objective structured clinical examination: an in-depth study of the rating process. Med Educ. 2007 Apr;41(4):331-40.
9. Weis D, Schank MJ. An instrument to measure professional nursing values. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2000;32(2):201-4.
10. Alcota M, Ruiz de Gauna P, González FE. Development of ethical practices and social responsibility in dental education at the university of Chile: student and faculty perceptions. Eur J Dent Educ. 2013 Feb;17(1):e70-6.
11. Raee H, Amini M, Momen Nasab A, Malek Pour A, Jafari MM. Team-based assessment of professional behavior in medical students. J Adv Med Educ Prof. 2014 Jul;2(3):126-30.
12. Fazel A, Jafari A, Khami M, Seddighpour L, Kharrazifard M, Nassibi M, et al. Dental Curriculum Revision in Iran: Dentists' Perspective on Achievement of Essential Competencies through National Curriculum. Iran J Public Health. 2013 Jan 1;42(Supple1):129-33.
13. American Dental Association. The ADA Principles of Ethics and Code of Conduct. 2018; Available at: https://www.ada.org/en/about-theada/principles-of-ethics-code-of-professional-conduct
14. American Board of Physician Specialties Code of Ethics. Available at: https://www.abpsus.org/code-of-ethics. Accessed November 2021.
15. The Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Iranian Dental Curriculum. The Ministry of Health and Medical Education; 2012. Available At: http://gpde.behdasht.gov.ir
16. Rassin M. Nurses' professional and personal values. Nurs Ethics. 2008 Sep;15(5):614-30.
17. Taherdoost H. Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument; How to Test the Validation of a Questionnaire/Survey in a Research. International Journal of Academic Research in Management (IJARM). 2016;3(5):28-36.
18. Bolarinwa OA. Principles and methods of validity and reliability testing of questionnaires used in social and health science researches. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2015 Oct-Dec;22(4):195-201.
19. Del Greco L, Walop W, McCarthy RH. Questionnaire development: 2. Validity and reliability. CMAJ. 1987 Apr 1;136(7):699-700.
20. Musick DW, McDowell SM, Clark N, Salcido R. Pilot study of a 360-degree assessment instrument for physical medicine & rehabilitation residency programs. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 May;82(5):394-402.
21. Hauck FR, Zyzanski SJ, Alemagno SA, Medalie JH. Patient perceptions of humanism in physicians: effects on positive health behaviors. Fam Med. 1990 Nov-Dec;22(6):447-52.
22. Zijlstra-Shaw S, Kropmans TJ, Tams J. Assessment of professional behaviour--a comparison of self-assessment by first year dental students and assessment by staff. Br Dent J. 2005 Feb 12;198(3):165-71.
23. Hoobehfekr S, Asghari F, Sayarifard A, Kadivar M, Kashefinejad S. Medical students' perception of professionalism climate in clinical settings. J Med Ethics Hist Med. 2021 Aug 31;14:10.
24. Zijlstra-Shaw S, Roberts T, Robinson PG. Evaluation of an assessment system for professionalism amongst dental students. Eur J Dent Educ. 2017 Nov;21(4):e89-e100.
25. Uma E, Ismail Rashid AH, Abas AL, Nettem S, Nagraj SK, Mastura N. Hybrid Tool for Assessment of Professionalism among Dental Undergraduate Students. Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2017 Dec;7(Suppl 1):S8-S14.
26. Khalaf K, El-Kishawi M, Al Kawas S. Exploring Professionalism among Final Year Dental Students and New Graduates: Translating Knowledge to Practice. Eur J Dent. 2022 Jun 7.
27. Alcota M, Manríquez JM, Cornejo-Ovalle M, Salinas JC, Catano VM, Ruiz de Gauna P, et al. Values related to professionalism in dental education at the University of Chile: Student and faculty perceptions. Eur J Dent Educ. 2019 May;23(2):190-198.
28. Amritha N, Vanishree MK, Chandra KM, Babu P. Assessment of dental students' attitudes and perceptions toward professionalism. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent. 2019 Jan 1;17(1):19.
IssueVol 20 (Continuously Published Article-Based) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/fid.v20i21.12973
Professionalism Education, Dental Educational Measurement Validation Study Dentistry

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Khami M, Baghizadeh Fini M, Kim S, Razeghi S, Sadighpour L, Dehghani Tafti S. Designing a tool to assess professionalism among dental students in clinical departments of dental school and its psychometric analysis. Front Dent. 2023;20.

Most read articles by the same author(s)