Vol 14, No 6 (2017)

Review Article

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    Multilevel analysis which was primarily introduced to deal with hierarchical data was later applied extensively for research in other fields of science and not only for nested data, but also for repeated measurements or clustered trials. This method of statistical analysis was applied in dental studies in the 1991 for the first time but despite its value for data analysis in dental studies, its application for dental studies remains limited until now. This manuscript reviews the applications of this method in dental studies.

Original Article

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    Objectives: The long-term clinical success of all-ceramic restorations requires sufficient bond strength between the veneering ceramic and substructure. The present study compared the effects of three methods of surface treatment on the microtensile bond strength of the veneering porcelain to zirconia.
    Materials and Methods: Twelve zirconia blocks were randomly divided into four groups of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) air abrasion, carbon dioxide (CO2) laser irradiation, erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation, and control samples (no surface treatment). After surface treatment, the zirconia blocks were veneered with porcelain. To assess the surface topographies, four surface-treated specimens were left uncoated. Microtensile bond strength was tested in each group and was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test. Surface topographies were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
    Results: The highest and lowest microtensile bond strength values were recorded in the Al2O3 (43.6±10.0 MPa) and control groups (34.7±8.2 MPa, P<0.05). The bond strengths in the CO2- and Er:YAG-irradiated groups were equal to 40.4±6.5 MPa and 38.2±7.5 MPa, respectively. The majority of the failures (mean=92.44%) were of cohesive nature located in the veneer, followed by mixed fractures (mean=7.6%). The milling marks of the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) machine were apparent in the control samples, while desert-like micro-cracks were observed on the surfaces treated with CO2 and Er:YAG lasers. Al2O3 air abrasion produced the roughest topography.
    Conclusions: Al2O3 air abrasion resulted in a higher microtensile bond strength compared to CO2 or Er:YAG laser irradiation. Cohesive failure mode was predominant. No pure adhesive failures were observed.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 169 | views: 350 | pages: 313-320

    Objectives: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is among the most frequent complications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). GVHD has several clinical manifestations in the oral cavity, including painful desquamative erythema, ulcerative mucosal lesions, and lichenoid lesions. The patients presenting with oral GVHD complain of oral sensitivity, pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. The treatment of oral GVHD includes a proper systemic therapy combined with a good oral hygiene and the use of local and topical steroids. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressants are used for the treatment of chronic oral GVHD; however, they are associated with different complications. Evidence shows that curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The treatment of lichen planus and oral mucositis with curcumin has been successful. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of topical curcumin in Orabase and triamcinolone in Orabase in the patients affected by oral GVHD.

    Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients presenting with oral GVHD were randomly divided into two groups of 13 using block randomization. The control group used triamcinolone in Orabase, and the case group received curcumin in Orabase.

    Results: The two groups were not significantly different in terms of the alleviated severity of the lesions at the end of the treatment (P=0.052). The comparison of the pain score via the visual analog scale (VAS) at the onset of the treatment and at days 14 and 28 (completion of the treatment) showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05).

    Conclusions: Curcumin has comparable efficacy to that of triamcinolone and may be prescribed for the patients presenting with oral GVHD.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 386 | views: 451 | pages: 321-328

    Objectives: Chipping is one of the concerns related to zirconia crowns. The reasons of chipping have not been completely understood. This in-vitro study aimed to assess the effect of coping design on the fracture resistance of all-ceramic single crowns with zirconia frameworks. 
    Materials and Methods: Two types of zirconia copings were designed (n=12): (1) a standard coping (SC) with a 0.5mm uniform thickness and (2) a modified coping (MC) consisted of a lingual margin of 1mm thickness and 2mm height connected to a proximal strut of 4mm height and a 0.3mm-wide facial collar. After veneer porcelain firing, the crowns were cemented to metal dies. Afterwards, a static vertical load was applied until failure. The modes of failure were determined. Data were calculated and statistically analyzed by independent samples T-test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
    Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the final fracture resistance equaled to 3519.42±1154.96 N and 3570.01±1224.33 N in SC and MC groups, respectively; the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.9). Also, the mean and SD of the initial fracture resistance equaled to 3345.34±1190.93 N and 3471.52±1228.93 N in SC and MC groups, respectively (P=0.8). Most of the specimens in both groups showed the mixed failure mode. 
    Conclusions: Based on the results, the modified core design may not significantly improve the fracture resistance.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 176 | views: 360 | pages: 329-336

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of fixture location and crown restoration on the accuracy of linear measurements by two cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems.
    Materials and Methods: Six dental implants were inserted in a dry human mandible in two stages. CBCT images were obtained in each stage by Alphard VEGA 3030 and Promax 3D Max systems. Imaging procedures were repeated after metallic crown placement. Two observers measured the alveolar height and width using five radiopaque markers. Values were compared to the same measurements made on initial images (prior to implant insertion) using t-test. The linear regression test was used to evaluate the effect of implant location on the accuracy of linear measurements.
    Results: The impact of fixture and fixture-crown combination on the accuracy of linear measurements of height (t = -5.2, P=0.0001 and t=-5.98, P<0.0001, respectively) and width (t=-3.42, P=0.004 and t= -2.7, P=0.015, respectively) was significantly underestimated. Metal crowns had no significant effect on measurements of bone height and width (t=-1.38, P=0.19 and t=0, P=1.00, respectively). Although both systems showed some underestimations, Promax 3D Max underestimated bone width significantly more than the other system (Alphard VEGA 3030=- 0.51mm and Promax 3D Max=-0.80). Regarding implant location, the measurements in the canine sites were found to be more accurate than the region between adjacent implants.
    Conclusions: CBCT is an accurate and reproducible system for dental implant follow-up examinations. Metal artifacts can lead to underestimation of measurements. However, this was not statistically significant in our study.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 153 | views: 338 | pages: 337-343

    Objectives: Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is a cariogenic microorganism. The restorative materials which harbor a biofilm with high levels of S. mutans can accelerate the occurrence of dental caries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different restorative materials on S. mutans colonization in a simple in-vitro biofilm formation model.
    Materials and Methods: Thirteen discs of each material (nanohybrid resin composite, microhybrid resin composite, and amalgam) were prepared, polished, and sterilized in a gamma radiation chamber. The saliva-free specimens were exposed to the S. mutans bacterial suspension (0.5 McFarland) and were incubated for 4 hours. Afterwards, the specimens were rinsed and sonicated in normal saline. 10µl of the obtained suspension was cultured in a sterile blood agar medium. After 24 hours, the number of colony forming units (CFU) of S. mutans was counted. A sterility test control was considered for each group of materials. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA at 5% significance level.
    Results: The means and standard deviations of the logarithmic values of the colonies on the surfaces of amalgam, microhybrid, and nanohybrid resin composites were equal to 3.76±0.64, 3.91±0.52 and 3.34±0.74, respectively.
    Conclusions: There were no significant differences between the restorative materials in terms of S. mutans adhesion rate. The evaluated resin composites showed comparable numbers of CFUs, which could imply the importance of the polishing procedures.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 182 | views: 341 | pages: 344-351

    Objectives: Following tooth extraction, soft and hard tissue alterations occur; Different factors can affect this process. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of gap filling on buccal alveolar crestal bone level after immediate implant placement after 4- to 6-month observation period.
    Materials and Methods: This   randomized clinical trial was performed on 20 patients (mean age of 38.8 years) requiring tooth extraction in a total of 27 areas in the anterior maxilla. The treatment strategy was as follows: atraumatic flapless tooth extraction, implant placement, insertion of a graft (test group) or no material (control group) between the implant and the socket wall, connection healing abutment placement and suturing the area. Clinical and cone beam computed tomographic examinations were performed before implant placement (baseline), 24 hours after surgery and 4-6 months (T2) after implant placement, to assess the buccal plate height (BH) and implant complications.
    Results: After 4 months of healing, a reduction in different bone measurements was noticed in the two groups. No statistically significant differences were assessed in bone height measurements between the test and control groups at different time points. The study demonstrated that immediate implantation resulted in 1.30 and 1.66 mm reduction in buccal bone plate in the test and control groups, respectively.
    Conclusions: The study demonstrated that immediate implantation in the extraction socket together with xenograft failed to prevent bone resorption.

Case Report