Frontiers in Dentistry (FID)  is the first Iranian dental journal in English. FID is an Open Access, Peer-Reviewed  journal published by Dental Research Center (DRC) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences which is a dynamic, rapidly growing research center.

The Journal aims to publish novel and high quality relevant information written by peers to researchers and readers involved in all fields of dentistry, oral health sciences and related interdisciplinaries, strives to keep pace with the rapid growth of publications, and move on to the edge of knowledge in this field.

Frontiers in Dentistry encourages submission from General dentists, dental specialists, clinicians, students and postgraduate students of dentistry, as well as researchers and academic members who do research in the field of dentistry and oral health sciences. The journal supports the following types of articles:

  • Original/Research Article
  • Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis
  • Reports including Technical Reports and Case Reports
  • Letter to the Editor


Happy Persian New Year 1402



Nowruz is the Persian new year and marks the beginning of spring and revival of nature. It means “New Day” in Farsi and it is the first day of the month of Farvardin (March 21st) in the Persian calendar.

On behalf of the Editorial Office of Frontiers in Dentistry we wish all our readers, contributors, authors and reviewers a HAPPY NOWRUZ and extend our sincere gratitude to all those who helped make this Journal a success. May you have a great year filled with prosperity and joy.

Read more about Happy Persian New Year 1402

Current Issue

Vol 20 (Continuously Published Article-Based)

Original Article

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    Objectives: The combination of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) has been recently introduced as an intracanal medicament. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects of MTA mixed with 2% chlorhexidine gel on human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and compare it with other common endodontic regeneration medicaments.

    Materials and Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of six experimental groups against Enterococcus faecalis was determined. The study groups consisted of RetoMTA mixed with 2% chlorhexidine gel (MTA+CHX), calcium hydroxide (CH), CH mixed with CHX gel, two concentrations of double antibiotic paste, and 2% CHX. The direct cytotoxic effect of minimum bactericidal concentration was evaluated by MTT on PDLSCs on days 1, 3, and 7. One-way ANOVA and post hoc tests were used for data analysis (P<0.05).

    Results: The viability of cells treated with MTA+CHX decreased significantly over time (P<0.05) making this group the most cytotoxic intracanal medicament on the 3rd and 7th days of treatment. On day one, the highest viability percentage was detected in the CH+CHX group followed by the CHX group. On day 3, CH+CHX and CHX groups displayed the highest viability percentage. On day 7, the highest viability was observed in the CHX group, which showed no significant difference with the control group (P=0.12).

    Conclusion: Regarding the antimicrobial potency of intracanal medicaments at minimum bactericidal concentration levels, CHX gel appears to be the least cytotoxic drug, while MTA+CHX shows the highest reduction in viability percentage

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    Objectives: This study assessed the fracture resistance of zirconia crowns with four framework designs, fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology.

    Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a maxillary central incisor was prepared and scanned with a CAD/CAM scanner, and 40 frameworks with 4 designs (N=10) were fabricated as follows: simple core, dentine core with a design similar to dentine, 3mm trestle design collar in the lingual aspect with proximal buttresses, and monolithic or full-contour. After porcelain applying and 20h immersion in distilled water (37°C), crowns were cemented on metal dies using zinc phosphate cement. Fracture resistance was measured by a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA (alpha=0.05).

    Results: Fracture resistance was maximum in the monolithic group, followed by the dentine core, trestle design, and simple core groups, respectively. The mean fracture resistance of the monolithic group was significantly higher than that of the simple core group (P<0.005).

    Conclusion: Zirconia restorations with frameworks that provided higher and more support for porcelain, showed increased fracture resistance

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    Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ginger essential oil spray for elimination of Candida albicans (C. albicans) adhering to self-cure acrylic plates.

    Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 120 self-cure acrylic discs were contaminated with C. albicans and randomly divided into four main groups: exposure to ginger essential oil, nystatin (positive control), distilled water (negative control), and no exposure. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ginger oil and nystatin was determined by the microdilution test. The stability of C. albicans was determined by culturing the samples of treated acrylic plates and comparing the mean number of remaining colonies. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn test with Bonferroni correction.  P<0.05 was considered significant

    Results: The MIC of ginger essential oil and nystatin was found to be 1560µg/mL and 4µg/mL, respectively. The differences between the mean count of C. albicans colonies before (10175±10730.25) and after the exposure to ginger essential oil (542.86±464.81) and nystatin (257.14±247.67) was statistically significant (P<0.001). The mean number of C. albicans colonies after spraying with nystatin was not significantly different compared with ginger essential oil (P=0.204). The efficacy of nystatin and ginger essential oil at each time was significantly more than distilled water (P<0.001). At 10 and 15min, there was no significant difference between nystatin and ginger essential oil groups (P=0.05).

    Conclusion: Ginger essential oil spray was found to be a simple and effective method for elimination of C. albicans adhering to acrylic discs.

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    Objectives: The purpose of this randomized parallel clinical trial was to assess and compare the efficacy of 97% Aloe Vera (AV) gel and 94.7% AV juice against an active control (0.05% Clobetasol Propionate) in the treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP).

    Materials and Methods: Age and sex matched patients with histologically proven OLP were divided into two groups. One group received 97% AV gel for topical application and 10ml 94.7% AV juice to consume twice daily. The active control group received topical 0.05% Clobetasol Propionate ointment twice daily. Treatment lasted two months followed by four months of observation. Monthly evaluation of various clinical features of OLP was done using the OLP disease scoring criteria. Burning sensation was evaluated using Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Mann Whitney–U (followed by Bonferroni adjustment) and Wilcoxon’s signed-rank tests were used for intergroup and intragroup comparisons, respectively. Interclass correlation-coefficient test was applied to assess the intra-observer variation (P<0.05).

    Results: In total, 41 females and 19 males participated in this study. The most common site was the buccal mucosa followed by the gingivobuccal vestibule. The reticular variant was most frequently encountered. Wilcoxon’s signed-rank test showed significant differences in both groups between baseline and end-of-treatment for VAS, site-score, reticular/plaque/papular score, erosive/atrophic score and OLP disease score (P<0.05). Mann–Whitney revealed significant difference between both groups in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th months (P<0.0071).

    Conclusion: Clobetasol Propionate is more effective for OLP management but in our study AV proved to be a safe treatment alternative for OLP management.

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